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Kearifan Lokal Masyarakat di Sekitar Kawasan Taman Nasional Lore Lindu, Palu, Sulawesi Tengah, dalam Pengelolaan Hutan dan Pemanfaatan SDA



Pendahuluan

Secara ekologis Sulawesi Tengah memiliki bentang alam yang rentan bencana banjir dan erosi. Hampir 52% wilayah Sulawesi Tengah memiliki tingkat kemiringan di atas 40%, kondisi topografi daratan didominasi pegunungan dengan kontur lipatan bumi yang rumit serta lereng-lereng yang curam. Selain itu, wilayah ini memiliki tingkat curah hujan yang tinggi mencapai 800-3000 mm pertahun (April-September), serta 22 sungai besar dan sedang yang mengalir dari lipatan bumi (Yayasan Merah Putih, 2002). Namun, di antara kondisi alam yang seperti ini, hidup masyarakat adat yang mampu beradaptasi dan menjaga kelestarian ekosistem hutan. Mereka memiliki kearifan tradisional yang konservatif terhadap lingkungan hidup. Kearifan tradisional ini dapat dilihat pada masyarakat adat Ngata Toro, masyarakat adat Mataue, dan masyarakat adat Dataran Lindu, yang tinggal di dalam atau berbatasan dengan kawasan Taman Nasional Lore Lindu (TNLL), di Kecamatan Kulawi, Kabupaten Donggala, Sulawesi Tengah.

Kearifan tradisional adalah pengetahuan secara turun-temurun yang dimiliki oleh masyarakat untuk mengelola lingkungan hidupnya, yaitu pengetahuan yang melahirkan perilaku sebagai hasil dari adaptasi mereka terhadap lingkungan yang mempunyai implikasi positif terhadap kelestarian lingkungan (Purnomohadi, 1985). Bagi masyarakat adat, kearifan tradisional merupakan peraturan yang harus dipatuhi dan dijunjung tinggi. Kepatuhan ini ada karena kearifan tradisional berakar kuat dalam kebudayaan mereka dan mendarah daging dalam keseharian hidup mereka.

Masyarakat lokal yang hidup seimbang berdampingan dengan alam memiliki pengetahuan yang diwariskan turun-temurun tentang bagaimana memenuhi kebutuhan hidup mereka tanpa merusak alam. Hal ini didukung oleh pendapat Nygrin (1999) dalam Shohibuddin “A Local Community Who Lives in Ecological Balance with Nature, is Regarded as an Environmental Expert and The Keeper of The Wisdom of an Equitable and Sustainable Traditional Resource Management System”. Berdasarkan hal itu, apakah masyarakat adat Toro, Mataue, dan Dataran Lindu memiliki kearifan lokal dalam pengelolaan hutan dan pemanfaatan sumber daya alam? Bagaimanakah kearifan lokal yang ada?
Kearifan Lokal Masyarakat Toro

Toro terletak sekitar 120°1` BT - 120°3`30” BT dan 1°29`30” LS - 1°32` LS, dengan luas wilayah 229,5 km2 (22.950 ha) dan ketinggian rata-rata 800 m di atas permukaan laut (dpl). Toro berada dalam wilayah kecamatan Kulawi, Donggala, Sulawesi Tengah, Masyarakatnya dikenal sebagai komunitas yang memiliki pranata sosial dan kelembagaan adat yang sangat kuat. Struktur masyarakatnya telah teratur sejak zaman nenek moyang mereka. Masyarakat Toro memiliki pemerintahan sendiri yang mengatur segala bentuk kehidupan mereka, termasuk dalam hal pengelolaan sumber daya alam. Dalam pemerintahannya ada tiga unsur yang sama tinggi, yaitu totua ngata, maradika, dan tina ngata. Ketiganya memiliki fungsi masing-masing tapi tidak berjalan sendiri-sendiri (Andrian, 2006).

Totua Ngata adalah dewan para totua kampung yang menjalankan kepemimpinan kolektif atas seganap urusan pemerintahan desa. Maradika adalah keturunan bangsawan yang dipilh oleh Totua Ngata dan berperan sebagai kepala suku dari masyarakat bersangkutan. Sedangkan Tina Ngata adalah ibu bagi masyarakat yang terbentuk atas dasar pengakuan masyarakat. Tina Ngata terbentuk karena peran perempuan yang penting bagi masyarakat, yaitu sebagai penyimpan adat dan pemilik otoritas pengeloaan warisan orang tua (Golar, 2007).

Sebelum adanya TNLL, masyarakat Toro sudah membagi alam menjadi zona-zona tertentu, di antaranya adalah:

* Wana Ngkiki, merupakan zona inti atau hutan primer, dimana pada daerah ini tidak boleh dilakukan aktifitas eksploitasi hutan. Zona ini terletak pada ketinggian 1000 mdpl dengan luas 2300 Ha, didominasi oleh rerumputan, lumut, dan perdu. Zona ini dianggap sebagai sumber udara segar sehingga keberadaannya dianggap sangat penting.
* Wana, merupakan hutan primer yang merupakan habitat bagi hewan, dan tumbuhan langka. Selain itu juga merupakan zona tangkapan air.di zona ini setiap orang dilarang membuka lahan pertanian. Zona ini dimanfaatkan untuk kegiatan mengambil getah dammar, wewangian, obat-obatan, dan rotan. Seluruh sumber daya di zona ini dikuasai secara kolektif. Kepemilikan pribadi hanya berlaku pada pohon damar yang diberikan kepada orang yang pertama kali mengambil dan mengolah getah damar itu. Kawasan wana merupakan hutan yang terluas di wilayah adat Ngata Toro dengan luas 11.290 Ha.
* Pangale, merupakan hutan bekas tebang (5-15 tahun yang lalu) yang telah mengalami suksesi kembali atau yang sudah dijadikan kebun dan lahan pertanian oleh masyarakat. Zona Pangale biasanya juga dimanfaatkan untuk mengambil rotan dan kayu untuk bahan bangunan dan keperluan rumah tangga, pandan hutan untuk membuat tikar dan bakul, bahan obat-obatan, getah damar dan wewangian. Kesemuanya harus berdasarkan izin dari lembaga adat atau pemerintah desa terlebih dahulu. Luas zona ini adalah 2950 Ha.
* Pahawa Pongko, merupakan hutan bekas kebun yang telah ditinggalkan selama 25 tahun ke atas, yang telah mengalami suksesi kembali atau yang sudah dijadikan kebun dan lahan pertanian oleh masyarakat.
* Oma, merupakan hutan belukar yang terbentuk dari bekas kebun yang sengaja dibiarkan untuk diolah lagi dalam jangka waktu tertentu menurut masa rotasi dalam sistem peladangan bergilir. Di zona ini hak kepemilikan pribadi atas lahan diakui.
* Pongata, merupakan wilayah pemukiman masyarakat, biasanya berada pada dataran yang lebih rendah.
* Polidae, merupakan lahan usaha pertanian masyarakat, berupa sawah dan lahan pertanian kering.

Berdasarkan zona-zona tersebut masyarakat Toro membentuk sistem pengolahan tanah bergilir. Lahan hutan yang telah di buka disebut popangalea, orang yang membukanya pertama kali memiliki hak kepe milikan lahan. Lahan terbuka yang produktif disebut bone. Setelah beberapa kali masa tanam, kesuburan tanah akan menurun seiring dengan menurunnya nutrisi yang terkandung di dalam tanah, tanah jenis ini disebut balingkea. Apabila memungkinkan balingkea ditanami lagi untuk satu atau beberapa kali masa tanam (mobalingkea). Balingkea yang tidak ditanami lagi, dan ditinggalkan (1-25 tahun) untuk mengembalikan kesuburan tanah disebut Oma.

Selain itu, adat Toro juga melarang adanya perburuan terhadap Anoa (Anoa Quarlesi dan Anoa Deoressicornis), Babirusa (Babyrousa Babyrusa), Enggang (Alo/rangkong) (Rhyticeros Cassidix), Maleo (Macrochepalon Maleo). Hal ini dikarenakan Anoa merupakan hewan yang dilindungi dan dianggap sebagai hewan adat yang hanya boleh dimakan dalam upacara adat, Babirusa dilindungi karena bentuk fisiknya yang unik, Enggang dilindungi karena warnanya yang indah, sementara Maleo dilindungi karena telurnya yang unik.

Kearifan lokal masyarakat Toro dalam pemanfaatan sumber daya alam dapat terlihat dari kegiatan seperti dibawah ini:

* Pembukaan Lahan.

Dalam aturan masyarakat adat Toro, lahan yang dapat dibuka adalah oma, terutama Oma Ngura (telah ditinggalkan 3-5 tahun), dan Oma Ntua (telah ditinggalkan 5-25 tahun) sedangkan lahan yang tidak diperkenankan untuk dibuka dengan alasan apapun adalah Pangale. Setiap yang ingin membuka lahan diwajibkan mengajukan permohonan kepada pemerintah desa melalui LMA (Lembaga Masyarakat Adat) disertai alasan, lokasi yang akan dimanfaatkan dan luasan yang dibutuhkan. Setelah izin diberikan, pembukaan lahan harus didahului dengan upacara adat ”Mohamele manu bula”.

* Pengambilan Kayu.

Izin pengambilan kayu dikeluarkan apabila tujuan pemanfaatan semata-mata untuk kebutuhan domestik. Namun dalam perkembangannya, saat ini telah diperkenankan pula memanen kayu untuk bahan baku industri meubel dan kusen berskala lokal. setelah mendapatkan izin penebangan, terlebih dahulu harus dilakukan upacara adat ”Mowurera pu kau”. Selain itu perlu diperhatikan bahwa kayu yang ditebang berdiameter minimal 60 cm, dan tidak melakukan penebangan di daerah Taolo, yaitu lokasi yang bertopografi miring sepanjang daerah aliran sungai dan di tempat yang rawan longsor dan erosi.

* Pemanenan Rotan (Calamus sp).

Rotan yang akan dipanen harus berumur lebih dari tiga tahun, dan penetapan lokasi ditentukan oleh hasil musyawarah lembaga adat dengan memperhatikan prinsip rotasi (ra ombo). Selain itu, terdapat larangan untuk menarik rotan sepanjang daerah aliran sungai pada saat tanaman padi di sawah ataupun ladang mulai berbulir.

Masyarakat Toro hingga kini masih menjalankan tradisinya. Perusak hutan dan pemburu hewan yang dilindungi akan dikenakan hukum adat. Pada mulanya, hukuman adat yang diberikan berupa satu kerbau, satu kain besa, dan 10 dulang. Namun saat ini hukuman yang diberikan berupa denda uang disesuaikan dengan kesalahan yang ada. Dari keseluruhan kondisi hutan Lore Lindu, hutan di Toro termasuk hutan yang paling terlindungi. Perekonomian masyarakat Toro dapat berkembang tanpa harus merusak hutan ataupun alam. Kehidupan masyarakat Toro yang selaras dengan alam dapat menjadi contoh yang baik bagi masyarakat luas.
Kearifan Lokal Masyarakat Dataran Lindu

Enclave Lindu merupakan kawasan pemukiman yang terletak di dalam kawasan TNLL. Enclave Lindu yang terdiri dari empat desa, yaitu Puroo, Langko, Tomado, dan Anca, sering disebut sebagai dataran Lindu masih termasuk ke dalam Kecamatan Kulawi, Kabupaten Donggala. Masyarakat dataran Lindu menyakini sebagai satu rumpun adat (etnik Lindu) yang mempunyai aturan terhadap lingkungan dataran kehidupannya. Seperti halnya dengan masyarakat Ngata Toro, masyarakat dataran Lindu telah membagi kawasan hutan di sekitar mereka ke dalam suaka-suaka/kawasan-kawasan, di antaranya adalah:

* Suaka Maradika, merupakan zona inti hutan yang tidak diperbolehkan adanya eksploitasi.
* Suaka Todea, merupakan zona hutan pemanfaatan, boleh dilakukan kegiatan pemanfaatan berdasarkan peraturan adat.
* Suaka Tontonga, merupakan zona rimba yang pemanfaatannya sangat terbatas.
* Suaka Lambara, merupakan daerah penggembalaan.
* Suaka Parabata, merupakan zona khusus untuk pemanfaatan danau Lindu yaitu pengkaplingan pada lokasi ikan di tepi danau Lindu.

Selain dalam hal pengelolaan hutan, masyarakat adat Dataran Lindu pun memiliki kearifan lokal dalam pemanfaatan sumber daya perairan. Masyarakat adat Dataran Lindu memberlakukan pelarangan (ombo) apabila ada salah satu tokoh masyarakat yang meningal dunia. Kearifan lokal ini harus tetap dilestarikan untuk mendukung upaya pengelolaan TNLL dalam menjaga dan melindungi kawasan agar tetap lestari dan berfungsi sebagaimana mestinya. Selain itu penguatan kelembagaan adat sangat penting untuk menjaga kearifan lokal masyarakat tetap eksis, sehingga dapat mengurangi tekanan masyarakat terhadap perubahan hutan.
Kearifan Lokal Masyarakat Mataue

Desa Mataue berbatasan langsung dengan kawasan TNLL, terletak di wilayah Kecamatan Kulawi, Kabupaten Donggala. Mayoritas masyarakat desa Mataue berasal dari suku Kaili, yang merupakan suku asli Sulawesi Tengah. Desa ini memiliki potensi air yang sangat besar untuk pemenuhan kebutuhan masyarakat baik untuk konsumsi rumah tangga, maupun irigasi. Sumber daya air yang ada di Mataue dimanfaatkan oleh masyarakat di empat desa, yaitu Desa Mataue, Desa Bolapapu, Desa Boladangko, dan Desa Sungku.

Masyarakat Desa Mataue memiliki kearifan lokal yang unik dalam pengelolaan dan pemanfaatan sumber daya air. Dalam hal pengelolaan sumber daya air masyarakat desa pengguna mempercayakannya kepada tokoh adat Desa Mataue yang merupakan desa terdekat dengan sumber mata air. Kegiatan pengelolaan yang dilakukan adalah kegiatan monitoring ke areal hulu yang hanya dilakukan oleh masyarakat Desa Mataue. Selain itu dalam pengelolaan lahan pertanian yang berada di sepanjang aliran air tidak diperkenankan mengunakan pupuk kimia dan pestisida.

Bentuk partisipasi masyarakat desa sekitar Mataue yang memanfaatkan sumber daya air adalah dengan membayar sejumlah uang kepada pemerintahan Desa Mataue sebagai petugas pengelola. Untuk pemungutan jasa retribusi air sendiri pemerintahan Desa Mataue menyerahkan sepenuhnya kepada pemerintahan desa masing-masing. Berdasarkan kesepakatan masing-masing desa, masyarakat yang konsumsi air untuk kebutuhan rumah tangga dikenakan biaya sebesar Rp 2000,-/bulan, sedangkan untuk irigasi sawah dikenakan biaya sebesar 1-1,5 blek gabah ketika masa panen.

Kearifan lokal lain yang terlihat adalah dalam hal pemanfaatan kulit kayu pohon beringin sebagai bahan baju adat (kain fuya). Untuk mendapatkan kulit kayu masyarakat tidak diperbolehkan menebang pohon beringin. Perubahan Lingkungan dan Respon Masyarakat Adat, Contoh Kasus Masyarakat Adat Toro Perubahan lingkungan yang disebabkan oleh faktor eksternal dan internal menimbulkan respon dari masyarakat yang berimplikasi terhadap kestabilan sumber daya alam. Pada contoh kasus masyarakat Toro, faktor-faktor tersebut adalah intervensi ekonomi pasar dan dinamika politik menyangkut ketidakseimbangan hak penguasaan lahan.

Intervensi ekonomi pasar berdampak pada perubahan intensitas pemanfaatan lahan di Toro. Permintaan pasar yang tinggi terhadap tanaman komersil seperti kakao, kopi, dan vanila berpengaruh terhadap preferensi ekonomi masyarakat yang berdampak pada konversi lahan unuk ditanami dengan tanaman komersil. Dinamika politik masyarakat Toro diwarnai oleh ketidakseimbangan hak penguasaan akan lahan. Ditetapkannya 80% wilayah Toro sebagai bagian TNLL (sesuai SK. Menteri Kehutanan No.593/Kpts-II/1993) berimplikasi pada melemahnya kontrol lembaga adat atas pengelolaan dan pemanfaatan sumber daya alam.

Faktor-faktor di atas membuat masyarakat merespon dengan melakukan revitalisasi kelembagaan adat sebagai penyesuaian diri terhadap perubahan lingkungan. Gerakan revitalisasi di Toro diwarnai dengan pendokumentasian sejumlah pengetahuan lokal, sistem nilai, norma sosial, dan hukum adat yang berkaitan dengan pengelolaan dan pemanfaatan sumber daya alam. Gerakan revitalisasi terus berlanjut hingga pembuatan peta partisipatif yang menggambarkan lokasi, batas-batas kawasan serta hak kepemilikan (bersama atau pribadi) dan restrukturisasi lembaga pemerintahan Desa Toro.
Implikasi Kearifan Lokal Adat bagi Zonasi Taman Nasional Lore Lindu

Dalam Undang-Undang No. 5 tahun1990 (tentang KSDAH dan Ekosistemnya terutama yang berkaitan dengan sistem zoning taman nasional) taman nasional terbagi ke dalam zona-zona sebagai berikut: zona inti, zona rimba, zona pemanfaatan tradisional, zona pemanfaatan intensif (non budidaya), dan zona rehabilitasi. Berdasarkan konsep ini, maka zona-zona di atas diatur sedemikian rupa secara konsentris dengan bagian tengah zona inti. Pembagian zona bersifat eksklusif (tidak mengenal wilayah enclave di dalam kawasan taman nasional).

Sementara itu, pada dasarnya, sistem zonasi pada kearifan lokal dapat digunakan sebagai pendekatan untuk sistem zonasi taman nasional. Berdasarkan pendekatan ini zonasi tidak bersifat konsentris tetapi menyebar tergantung pada wilayah adat yang ada, serta bersifat inklusif (mengenal adanya wilayah enclave dalam kawasan taman nasional).
Kesimpulan

Masyarakat adat Desa Toro, Desa Mataue dan Dataran Lindu yang hidup di sekitar kawasan Taman Nasional Lore Lindu merupakan masyarakat lokal yang telah memiliki kearifan tradisional warisan nenek moyang mereka dalam mengelola lanskap hutan dan memanfaatkan sumber daya alam di sekitar tempat tinggal mereka. Kearifan masyarakat lokal ini telah ada sebelum ditetapkannya kawasan ini menjadi taman nasional.

Perubahan lingkungan adalah tantangan yang dapat melunturkan nilai-nilai kearifan tradisional yang berimplikasi negatif pada kestabilan sumber daya alam. Respon masyarakat Toro dalam mengatasi krisis perubahan lingkungan, yaitu dengan revitalisasi kelembagaan desa dapat menjadi contoh bagi masyarakat adat lain. Kearifan lokal masyarakat adat berimplikasi terhadap zonasi TNLL. Zonasi tradisional digunakan sebagai pendekatan pada zonasi TNLL. Berdasarkan pendekatan ini zonasi tidak bersifat konsentris tetapi menyebar dan inklusif.

Sumber :http//melayuonline.com
Oleh Taswirul Afiyatin Widjaya, dkk.

Daftar Pustaka

* -------. "Pendidikan Lingkungan Hidup Berbasis Pengetahuan Lokal Masyarakat Adat di Sulawesi Tengah 2002-2003". Yayasan Merah Putih. http://www.ymp.or.id.
* Andrian, Handi. 2006. "Kearifan Suku Toro Menjaga Hutan". Tabloid Pesona Nusantara, Jum`at, 27 Oktober 2006. Media Indonesia.
* Golar. 2007. Strategi Adaptasi Masyarakat Adat Toro, Kajian Kelembagaan Lokal dalam Pengelolaan Sumber daya Hutan di Taman Nasional Lore Lindu Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah. Disertasi. Bogor: Pascasarjana Institut Pertanian Bogor.
* Purnomohadi, S. 1985. Sistem Pengetahuan Tradisional Masyarakat di Sekitar Kawasan Hutan Lindung Gunung Lumut, Kab. Pasir Provinsi Kalimantan Timur. Kajian: Pemanfaatan Tumbuhan. Skripsi. Bogor: Fakultas Kehutanan Institut Pertanian Bogor.
* Shohibuddin, M. Discursive Strategies and Local Power in the Politics of Natural Resource Management Case of Toro Community in Western Margin of Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi. Paper berdasarkan penelitian bersama STORMA. Bogor.
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Exploring Stress Management Options

Managing your stress effectively make take on many different forms. While there are women who choose expensive and more complicated ways to help deal with stress, there are others who employ simpler and less costly means that are no less effective. It just takes commitment and willingness to be able to get rid of stress in the best possible ways available.

Here are some of the practical options on how women can achieve stress management.

Feeling Better at the Exact Moment You Want To

There are times when you may recognize that you are already under a lot of stress. When you need to decrease your stress level at the soonest time possible, there are a number of techniques that you can take on. Known to act considerably fast, these methods can be used so that you would feel better in a less amount of time. Doing these techniques regularly will also bring about better long term benefits.

These techniques include:

* Meditation
* Listening to music
* Breathing exercises
* Yoga
* Reframing your mind with some sense of humor
* Exercise
* Keeping a journal
* Finding perspective in your life
* Doing visualizations

Sustaining the Proper Attitude in Your Daily Life

The stress that you are experiencing could be linked directly to the attitude that you take on daily. Your perception of the daily happenings in your life also brings on added pressure. So here are some good attitude reminders that could help you relieve stress.

* Be optimistic
* Be happy
* Stop feeling like you always need to be in control
* Stop being a perfectionist
* Always maintain positive affirmations in life
* Cultivate a sense of humor
* Let go of your anger
* Have fun
* Let go of thoughts that can cause you stress

Taking Proper Care of Yourself

In moments when we are stressed, women tend to forget to take proper care of their own bodies. This could result in added stress. However, there are ways that can reduce stress levels such as the following:

* Getting proper rest and adequate hours of sleep
* Eating well-balanced and nutritious meals
* Getting plenty of exercise regularly
* Maintaining a healthy sex life
* Indulging in a number of hobbies

Creating the Proper Atmosphere for Daily Living

The emotional and physical environment that you are in could also affect your stress level. Although the effects that your surroundings bring may be subtle, they can become significant in the long run. Here are some ways to alter your atmosphere so that it can bring about stress relief:

* Get rid of the clutter, as too much can affect your sense of calm
* Create a soothing environment by choosing light shades for the colors of your home
* Add some music as this could really soothe the soul and bring more relaxation
* Make your own spa at home
* Use some aromatherapy through the use of scented oils and candles
by: James Pendergraft
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Studying English at University - Secrets to Success

English is a core subject in British schools. All pupils from infant to school leaving age are required to study it in one way or another. The study of English at a higher level continues to be popular but it is not for everyone.

Most traditional English courses were largely literature based. This meant, and still means, that you have lots to read. If you enjoy reading then this is no problem, but much of the reading in fact most of it is likely to be done in your own time. You will be asked to read literature from different ages and of different genre. It is likely you will study prose, poetry and drama. Unlike some other subjects where there is heavy emphasis on absorbing facts, English is often different because it relies more on your personal responses to what you have read.

More recently there has been a growth in the number of English courses which are language based and look at different aspects of English and linguistics. In courses like this for instance, you may be asked to translate a text from one genre to another. There has also been a development in writing courses which enable students to write expertly in both creative and functional language. Subjects often associated with English are Media Studies and Drama.

The downside of studying English particularly in the more traditional courses is the huge emphasis on reading. If you are not an avid reader and get little pleasure from reading then it might be wise for you to think twice about studying English. With the emphasis being on personal response and opinion rather than on fact based outcomes, then this may cause problems for some. The requirement to write long essays is not specific to English. Other subjects require projects, dissertations, and long essays, but it is unlikely you will be expected to write quite as much as you would for English study.

A qualification in English at whatever level is likely to be an important factor in making the search for a job easier. There are many opportunities for people with English at degree level because its value is recognised in business and the professions.

At some point in your course, you will almost certainly be required to do at least one big project. So where do you start? The library of course! In addition, remember that there is a wealth of information available via the internet.

The internet is a fantastic aid to all forms of study and if you need information when researching a project then there is an abundance of it. Information is made available on virtually any subject you can name by search engines and electronic encyclopaedia, and the information is made available in great quantities. It is important therefore, to find out exactly what you need, what is relevant.

A lot of the information will also be opinion or just drivel, peddled as knowledge. You need to be careful and separate the two. Generally speaking, information that is well established will be found in several places or be attributable to a reliable source. It is often worth trying to verify any potentially controversial points independently offline. This can take time and effort, using the internet is seen by many as a quick way of getting information. It is not. Allow sufficient time for your project to allow you to verify your facts and to develop your own opinions. Your tutor’s time is valuable, s/he will not thank you for wasting it with unverified rubbish from unreliable sources.

Be selective; decide what the project requires. Try to be specific and focused. If your project contains irrelevant information and detail it is not likely to be viewed favourably, so make sure you use only what is necessary to improve your project. Do not make the mistake of copying great extracts from the net; this is not a good idea. Even more important than copying great chunks is that you do not try to pass off what you do copy as you own work. This is plagiarism and is viewed very seriously by examiners and moderators at all levels of academic study. It is also completely pointless as it removes all learning opportunities.

When you do find the information that you require, you need to read it, understand it and then attempt to express it in your own words. At first this maybe difficult for you to achieve but the more you do it the easier it will become. You will learn how to process the information to your advantage.

If your project requires you to include photographs, pictures or other images then the internet can be very useful in providing these and incorporating them into your work. But always make sure that you get permission to use the images. It is unlikely that you would ever be prosecuted for stealing someone else’s intellectual property but it is a matter of courtesy.

Finally, remember it is important that your project is presented in the most effective way. It should be cohesive, clearly indexed and easy to read. You can always get a friend to read it through in order to proofread and critique your work.


by: Sam Pearce
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Have Fun Learning Creativity



You have some great ideas. You toss them around in your mind. You tell friends about them. They go nowhere. Why? They go nowhere because of what your friends said or because you have the misconception that only a select few are able to unleash a steady flow of creative genius. And, you, of course, couldn't be one of that select group. That is not true at all.

Anyone who has creative genius will tell you that creativity is very much like a muscle that needs to be developed in order to perform at top efficiency. If you don't learn how to develop creative thinking, this skill, like a muscle will become withered and useless to you when you most need it. On the other hand, keep working at it and this skill will soon be ready for action whenever you need it.

So how do you develop your own personal style of creative thinking?

Well, the first thing is to realize your brain has a greater capacity and speed than the world's biggest and fastest super computer. That's right! Even the world's biggest and fastest super computer cannot store as much information or handle it faster than your brain. You are not limited like a super computer because your brain is not limited and that's where creativity comes from - your brain. It doesn't come from thin air, it comes from within you and you already have the tools needed to exercise it.

So, the first thing is to begin absorbing as much information as you can every day. Grab as much knowledge and learning as you can find. Read, watch, and listen to everything available -- good and bad. Don't judge anything at this point of development because it's not the content that is important, only the process of absorption. Keep your mind open to the infinite possibilities that each piece of information presents. The more you know, the more you'll want to know, and the more your brain will be exercised. Prepare to be amazed at little facts that add a bit of color to your conversations with people. They will begin to see you in a new light.

Next, focus on a creative activity every day. This is as simple as doodling. Doodling is a creative activity. Don't let anything hinder you. Just doodle away, mindlessly. You will unleash a little bit of creative thinking and it will be encouraging to see something you created. In addition to doodling, practice drawing something specific for a couple of minutes each day. You might unleash the artist in you.

Or, grab a camera and start snapping photos of anything and everything. Don't try to be "artsy,” just snap away! You might find you have a knack for photography.

Keep a journal and make a point to write in it at the end of each day. Describe your experiences using words that capture your five senses. What did it smell like, taste like, feel like - you get the idea? You may discover a writer lurking in your brain.

In a short time you'll have built yourself a tiny portfolio or doodles, art, photographs and writings and you'll be amazed at the growth of your creativity. You might actually enjoy those exercises so much that they will become a part of you and you'll be addicted to them.

You've heard it said - Think out of the box. Well, not just yet. Be aware of constraints or blocks to your creative process. Constraints are actually a good thing. It's your brain telling you it needs more knowledge about that which you are struggling. Constraints are the brain's mechanisms to force discipline upon you. Discipline forces you to be more resourceful. Creative freedom is great, but limitations are too. There must be balance.

Oscar winner, Anthony Hopkins, would just get in his car and drive across country alone with no destination in particular. It helped him experience different people in different parts of the country, away from the unreality of Hollywood. These little trips helped him to become a better actor.

Try something new every day and let your experiences broaden your view of the world and people around you. Explore a new neighborhood in your town. Spend an afternoon in a museum to which you've never been before. Chat up someone in the checkout line at the store. You need to open up to the people around you. You need to step out of your comfort zone more and more each day. This will heighten your sense of adventure and your zest for life.

Think about it. When was the last time you did something out of your comfort zone? When you stay in your comfort zone, you miss out on a whole lot of experiences that could add to your growth - emotionally, mentally, physically, or spiritually.

I would love to try bungee jumping and skydiving but I'm a coward when it comes to risking life and limb. If you have the courage, go for it! At the very least, you will have plenty of exciting stories to share, enabling you to develop your storytelling skills, making you the life of any gathering. People will love to hear you tell about doing the things they only dream of doing.

This next thing will seem nutty. It is. You need to embrace insanity. I'm not talking about the kind that will land you in a rubber room. As John Russell once said, "Sanity calms, but madness (insanity) is more interesting."

History shows that nearly every creative thinker was once deemed insane by "normal" people. Lucky for us, the critics couldn't stop the creative geniuses from changing the world. Being "normal" confines’ people to think - normally, that is, to think within limits society has deemed to be normal. Creativity is essentially ignoring those limits, within the Law, of course. Your creativity may seem bizarre and downright strange to the "normals.” Ignore them and seek out others who also ignore the "normals" of this world. They will know how to help you to cultivate your new sense of creativity.

Now, a word of caution as you step out in your search for creativity. Don't strive to develop a creative "personality." There is a difference between a creative personality and creative thinking. Examples of wacky creative personalities would be George Washington, who often rode into battle naked, or James Joyce, who wrote "Dubliners" with beetle juice because he had an intense fear of ink, or Albert Einstein, who thought his cat was a spy sent by his rival. They were all great men, for sure, but a little wacky at times because they lost touch with reality.

It's important that your creativity doesn't blind you to the real world. Keep your feet on the ground and your head in the clouds! (Look familiar?)

Starting today, begin thinking beyond your "limits." Follow these steps and you'll soon be living a life full of interesting and exciting adventures. Your new level creative thinking will bring about a new zest for living life.

Who knows, your idea might be the next great idea to change the world.
by: Malkeet Singh
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Developing Documentation During System Development

System documentation and user documentation are the two types of documents. System documentation is required for better understanding and maintenance of the application software. User documentation is designed to help the user operate the system. A good-quality document requires designing the documents, writing and editing the text, and testing them, and hence takes longer time for documentation. Lower-quality documentation can be produced faster. Nowadays online documentation is becoming more important compared to traditional paper-based manuals. Users are more familiar with paper-based documents and these are simpler to use. Although online documents require people to be familiar with additional software commands, searching for information is easier in online documents. These also enable the users to interact with the document.

There are mainly three types of user documentation: reference documents, procedure manuals and tutorials. Reference documents are used when the user needs to learn how to perform a specific function. Procedure manuals describe how to perform business tasks. Tutorials teach people how to use major components of the system.

Introduction

There are two types of documents.

System documentation is intended to help programmers and systems analysts understand the application software and enable them to build it or maintain it after the system is installed. System documentation is a by-product of the system analysis and design process, and is created as the project unfolds.

Each step and phase produce documents that are essential in understanding how the system is built or is to be built, and these documents are stored in the project binder(s).

User documentation (such as user’s manuals, training manuals and online help systems) is designed to help the user operate the system. Although most project teams expect users to have received training and read the user’s manuals before operating the system, unfortunately this is not always the case. It is more common today – especially in the case of commercial software packages for microcomputers – for users to begin the software without training or reading the user’s manual.

User documentation is often left until the end of the project, which is a dangerous strategy. Developing a good documentation takes longer than many people expect because it requires much more than simply writing a few pages.

Producing documentation requires designing the documents (whether paper or online), writing the text, editing them and testing them. For good-quality documentation, this process usually takes about 3 hours per paper page (single-spaced) for paper-based documentation or 2 hours per screen for online documentation.

Thus, a “simple” set of documentation such as a 20-page user’s manual and a set of 20 help screens take 100 hours. Of course, lower-quality documentation can be produced faster.

The time required to develop and test user documentation should be built into the project plan. Most organizations plan for documentation development to start once the interface design and program specifications are complete. The initial draft of documentation is usually scheduled for completion immediately after the unit tests are complete.

This reduces – but does not eliminate – the need for the documentation to be tested and revised before the acceptance tests is started.

Although paper-based manuals are still significant, online documentation is becoming more important. Paper-based documentation is simpler to use because it is more familiar to users, especially novices who have less computer experience; online documentation requires the users to learn one more set of commands. Paper-based documentation is also easier to flip through to gain a general understanding of its organization and topics, and can be used far away from the computer itself.

There are four key strengths of online documentation that all but guarantee that it will be the dominant format form for the next century. First, searching for information is often simpler (provided the help search index is well designed). The user can type in a variety of keywords to view information instantaneously, rather than having to search through the index or table of contents in a paper document. Second, the same information can be presented several times in many different formats, so that the user can find and read the information in the most informative way.

Third, online documentation enables the users to interact with the documentation. For example, it is possible to use links or “tool tips” (i.e., pop-up text) to explain unfamiliar terms, and programmers can write “show me” routines that demonstrate on the screen exactly what buttons to click and text to type. Finally, online documentation is significantly less expensive to distribute and keep up-to-date than paper documentation.

Types of Documentation

There are fundamentally three different types of user documentation: reference documents, procedure manuals and tutorials. Reference documents (also called the help system) are designed to be used when the user needs to learn how to perform a specific function (e.g., printing a monthly report, taking a customer order). Typically, people read reference information only after they have tried and failed to perform the function. Writing reference documentation requires special care because users are often impatient or frustrated when they begin to read them.

Procedure manuals describe how to perform business tasks (e.g., printing a monthly report, taking a customer order). Each item in the procedures manually guides the user through a task that requires several functions or steps in the system. Therefore, each entry is typically much longer than an entry in a reference document.

Tutorials teach people how to use major components of the system (e.g., an introduction to the basic operations of the system). Each entry in the tutorial is typically longer than the entities in procedure manuals and the entities are usually designed to be read in sequence, whereas entries in reference documents and procedure manuals are designed to be read individually.

Regardless of the type of user documentation, the overall process for developing it is similar to the process of developing interfaces. The developer first designs the general structure for the documentation and then develops the individual components within it.

Documentation and managing the documentation in company’s Intranet are critical for a company, and the resource spent on it is worthwhile. For more info on these topics and training refer to Business Analysis & Data Modeling Training Bangalore

by: Narain Balchandani

i


System documentation and user documentation are the two types of documents. System documentation is required for better understanding and maintenance of the application software. User documentation is designed to help the user operate the system. A good-quality document requires designing the documents, writing and editing the text, and testing them, and hence takes longer time for documentation. Lower-quality documentation can be produced faster. Nowadays online documentation is becoming more important compared to traditional paper-based manuals. Users are more familiar with paper-based documents and these are simpler to use. Although online documents require people to be familiar with additional software commands, searching for information is easier in online documents. These also enable the users to interact with the document.

There are mainly three types of user documentation: reference documents, procedure manuals and tutorials. Reference documents are used when the user needs to learn how to perform a specific function. Procedure manuals describe how to perform business tasks. Tutorials teach people how to use major components of the system.

Introduction

There are two types of documents.

System documentation is intended to help programmers and systems analysts understand the application software and enable them to build it or maintain it after the system is installed. System documentation is a by-product of the system analysis and design process, and is created as the project unfolds.

Each step and phase produce documents that are essential in understanding how the system is built or is to be built, and these documents are stored in the project binder(s).

User documentation (such as user’s manuals, training manuals and online help systems) is designed to help the user operate the system. Although most project teams expect users to have received training and read the user’s manuals before operating the system, unfortunately this is not always the case. It is more common today – especially in the case of commercial software packages for microcomputers – for users to begin the software without training or reading the user’s manual.

User documentation is often left until the end of the project, which is a dangerous strategy. Developing a good documentation takes longer than many people expect because it requires much more than simply writing a few pages.

Producing documentation requires designing the documents (whether paper or online), writing the text, editing them and testing them. For good-quality documentation, this process usually takes about 3 hours per paper page (single-spaced) for paper-based documentation or 2 hours per screen for online documentation.

Thus, a “simple” set of documentation such as a 20-page user’s manual and a set of 20 help screens take 100 hours. Of course, lower-quality documentation can be produced faster.

The time required to develop and test user documentation should be built into the project plan. Most organizations plan for documentation development to start once the interface design and program specifications are complete. The initial draft of documentation is usually scheduled for completion immediately after the unit tests are complete.

This reduces – but does not eliminate – the need for the documentation to be tested and revised before the acceptance tests is started.

Although paper-based manuals are still significant, online documentation is becoming more important. Paper-based documentation is simpler to use because it is more familiar to users, especially novices who have less computer experience; online documentation requires the users to learn one more set of commands. Paper-based documentation is also easier to flip through to gain a general understanding of its organization and topics, and can be used far away from the computer itself.

There are four key strengths of online documentation that all but guarantee that it will be the dominant format form for the next century. First, searching for information is often simpler (provided the help search index is well designed). The user can type in a variety of keywords to view information instantaneously, rather than having to search through the index or table of contents in a paper document. Second, the same information can be presented several times in many different formats, so that the user can find and read the information in the most informative way.

Third, online documentation enables the users to interact with the documentation. For example, it is possible to use links or “tool tips” (i.e., pop-up text) to explain unfamiliar terms, and programmers can write “show me” routines that demonstrate on the screen exactly what buttons to click and text to type. Finally, online documentation is significantly less expensive to distribute and keep up-to-date than paper documentation.

Types of Documentation

There are fundamentally three different types of user documentation: reference documents, procedure manuals and tutorials. Reference documents (also called the help system) are designed to be used when the user needs to learn how to perform a specific function (e.g., printing a monthly report, taking a customer order). Typically, people read reference information only after they have tried and failed to perform the function. Writing reference documentation requires special care because users are often impatient or frustrated when they begin to read them.

Procedure manuals describe how to perform business tasks (e.g., printing a monthly report, taking a customer order). Each item in the procedures manually guides the user through a task that requires several functions or steps in the system. Therefore, each entry is typically much longer than an entry in a reference document.

Tutorials teach people how to use major components of the system (e.g., an introduction to the basic operations of the system). Each entry in the tutorial is typically longer than the entities in procedure manuals and the entities are usually designed to be read in sequence, whereas entries in reference documents and procedure manuals are designed to be read individually.

Regardless of the type of user documentation, the overall process for developing it is similar to the process of developing interfaces. The developer first designs the general structure for the documentation and then develops the individual components within it.

Documentation and managing the documentation in company’s Intranet are critical for a company, and the resource spent on it is worthwhile. For more info on these topics and training refer to Business Analysis & Data Modeling Training Bangalore
by: Narain Balchandani
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Pemulung Bakar Ilalang Sumber Air Langka Picu Tersendatnya Pemadaman



Imam Wahyudiyanta
Sumber : detik.com

Surabaya - Upaya pemadaman kebakaran di RT I RW III Tubanan Lama Kecamatan Tandes, Surabaya mengalami kesulitan.

Sebab di lokasi kejadian tidak ada sumber air. Akibatnya proses pemadaman pun menjadi tersendat.

"Kami harus mengambil air di Sungai Balongsari dan jaraknya lumayan jauh dari
lokasi kebakaran," kata Komandan Operasional PMK, Suparman kepada
detiksurabaya.com di lokasi kejadian, Sabtu (26/9/2009).

Suparman mengatakan bila sumber air terpenuhi maka kebakaran itu tidak sampai
merembet ke bangunan rumah lainnya. "Kalau kebakaran seperti ini cukup satu
jam," ujar dia.

Pantauan detiksurabaya.com, petugas PMK terpaksa menghentikan pemadaman karena
menunggu pasokan air dari Balongsari. Sementara itu api masih terlihat di antara
reruntuhan rumah yang sudah hangus.

Warga setempay pun terlihat berusaha membuat jarak untuk memisahkan sumber api dengan lokasi yang masih aman.

Kebakaran yang terjadi Sabtu petang itu diduga berawal dari ulah pemulung yang membakar ilalang. Akibat api yang meluas, dilaporkan 6 rumah, gudang dan bengkel ikut ludes.
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